• We now have a downloadable textbook.  Feel free to store it on your device to suppliment what we learned in class.

    Chapter 1: Matter—Solids, Liquids, and Gases

    Chapter 2: Changes of State

    Chapter 3: Density 

    Chapter 4: The Periodic Table & Bonding

     

     



  • Google Classroom is the new place for class information, news, and assignments

    Posted by Hans Ludwig on 3/29/2020 6:00:00 PM

    The go to place for Mr lduwig's Science Class related things is now Google Classroom.  (Be sure to login with your GUSD credentials)

     

    Parent/Guardian/Student Remote Learning Checklist

    Which includes...
    * ParentConnect -  Parents, you should have been getting weekly school emails every Sunday evening at 6pm. If you need to add an email in your account (or any kind of change), you can make changes yourself directly on ParentConnect.
    However if you do not have a login information, email Armine Davidian (adavidian@gusd.net) to get that straightened out.
    * Contacting me (hludwig@gusd.net)
    * District Google Login (students @stu.gusd.net credentials)
    * Clever (the district's single sign on service) 
    * Free access to wifi or a chromebook for home use.   

    Comments (-1)
  • Agenda Week 29 3/9-13

    Posted by Hans Ludwig on 3/9/2020 3:00:00 PM

    M-F

    CAST (California Science Test) testing all week. [It's like CAASPP but for Science]
    Get plenty of rest. 
    You may not have cellphones, smartwatches, or really any kind of wearable technology on your person while testing.  Please keep them in your pack and packs on or under the counters in the classroom for the duration of testing.
    Many thanks,

    -Mr L

     Have a great spring break!

    **************FreeForThePriceOfAdmission****************

    To prevent getting sick...(from the CDC with love)

    Wash your hands...

     

    Rub your hands in Vietnamese!

     Wow! All the pet peeves in one video...

     

    let's see if we can't get this going during this week's rain :-)

     

     

     

     

    Comments (-1)
  • Agenda Week 28 3/2-6

    Posted by Hans Ludwig on 3/2/2020 3:00:00 PM

     

    Mon 3/2

    * J#112

    * Sub report

    * Magic Mountain forms: money due by Fri 3/13

    * Finish Energy Levels, Electrons, & Covalent Bonds (Part 2)

    * Finish Bestie Review & Practice

    ***Hand out Study Guide for Thursday's Chapter 4 test***

    **********************

    Tues 3/3

    * J#113

    * Types & Properties of Elements [write these on the back of Bestie]
    -Metals
         • Have a shiny luster
         • Are generally dense and solid at room temp
         • Are good conductors of heat & electricity
         • Are malliable

    Non-metals
         • Have a dull luster
         • Are generally gases at room temp
         • Are poor conductors of heat & electricity
         • Are brittle when solid

    Metalloids (Semi-metals)
         • could be dull or shiny.
         • conducts heat and electricity, but not as well as metals.
         • good semiconductors.
         • usually malleable.
         • usually ductile.
         • can both gain and lose electrons in reactions

    * Answers to "Protons, Neutrons, & Electrons Practice"
    asdf

    * Intro Bohr Model

    *******************

    Wed 3/4

    * J#114

    * Bohr Models WKST

    * White Board Practice - How to find protons, neutrons, electrons, valence electrons, energy level, and group of a particular element with the Bestie.

    Here is a zip file with answers to the Bohr Model Worksheet and Study Guide.

    [HWK study for tomorrow's test AND bring a colored Bestie.  No printouts accepted!]

    ***********************************************

    Thurs 3/5

    * J#115

    * Chapter 4 Test

    ******************

    Fri 3/6

    * J#116

    * Read Dr. Suess 

    ***************************************

    Free for the price of admission....

     

    Semiconductors are awesome...enjoy this Samsung propaganda!

     

    And now not double rainbows, but double bonds...

     

    Mudskippers are the real humming fish.  Thanks Andrew!

     

     

     

    Comments (-1)
  • Agenda Week 27 2/18-21

    Posted by Hans Ludwig on 2/24/2020 3:00:00 PM

    M 2/24

    * J#107

    * Archemedies & the Golden Crown [due at end of class]

    ***********************

    Tues 2/25

    * J#108

    * Few Elements, Many Compounds [due at end of class]

    ***********************

    Wed 2/26

    * J#109

    * Cloud Computing & CS Survey

    * Bestie & Energy Levels [LAB]

    • The electrons surrounding an atom are located in regions around the nucleus called “energy levels”.
    • An energy level represents the 3-dimensional space surrounding the nucleus where electrons are most likely to be.
    • The first energy level is closest to the nucleus. The second energy level is a little farther away than the first. The third is a little farther away than the second, and so on.
    • Each energy level can accommodate or “hold” a different number of electrons before additional electrons begin to go into the next level.
    • When the first energy level has 2 electrons, the next electrons go into the second energy level until the second level has 8 electrons.
    • When the second energy level has 8 electrons, the next electrons go into the third energy level until the third level has 8 electrons.
    • When the third energy level has 8 electrons, the next 2 electrons go into the fourth energy level.
    • The electrons in the energy level farthest from the nucleus are called valence electrons.
    • Atoms in the same column (group) in the periodic table have the same number of valence electrons.

    (this is a simplified periodic table.  Please note what appears on Bestie as "group 13," appears here as "Group 3;" "Group 17" on besite appears here as "group 7"...and so on.  You need that information to complete the next assignment...)

    * Bestie Review Practice [WKST]

    ************************

    Thurs 2/27

    * J#110
    - The "octet rule" says atoms tend to prefer a full outer electron shell...generally 8 electrons.  [see video below]

    * Bestie Review & Practice (1st page)

    * Energy Levels, Electrons, & Covalent Bonding (Part 1) [LAB]

    • The electrons on the outermost energy level of the atom are called valence electrons.
    • The valence electrons are involved in bonding one atom to another.
    • The attraction of each atom’s nucleus for the valence electrons of the other atom pulls the atoms together.
    • As the attractions bring the atoms together, electrons from each atom are attracted to the nucleus of both atoms, which “share” the electrons.
    • The sharing of electrons between atoms is called a covalent bond, which holds the atoms together as a molecule.
    • A covalent bond happens if the attractions are strong enough in both atoms and if each atom has room for an electron in its outer energy level.
    • Atoms will covalently bond until their outer energy level is full.
    • Atoms covalently bonded as a molecule are more stable than they were as separate atoms.

    ****************************

    Fri 2/28

    * J#111

    * Chapter 4 reading [only the first half; neither including nor anything beyond covalent bonding.  The full chapter is availible at the top of the page]

    * Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons Practice [WKST] 
    -due at end of period

    *************Freeforthepriceofadmission*****************

    Watch the first 2:29 minutes for an explanation of the octet rule and covalent bonding.

     

     

    Comments (-1)
  • Agenda Week 27 2/18-21

    Posted by Hans Ludwig on 2/18/2020 3:00:00 PM

    Tues 2/18

    * J#103 (a) - Objects float when their density is less than that of the fluid surrounding it.  Objects sink when their density is greater than the density of the fluid surrounding it.  

    * Density of Water - The density of liquid water is 1 g/mL regardless of the volume of water.

    * Float/Sink Lab - (Use the caclulation and water-displacement methods to...) Find volume, mass, and densities of four objects and predict if they will float or sink in water.

    * Density Ball Riddle + D!NG video.

     

    **********************

    Wed 2/19

    * J#104

    * Density Practice #1 WKST - Finish in-class.  Partner correct & return

    * Ch 3 Quizzie Poo 

    *******************

    Thurs 2/20

    * J#105

    * Chapter four textbook availible for download above!

    * Review Chapter 3 Quiz

    * Protons, Neutrons, Electrons LAB
    • Atoms are made of extremely tiny particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons.
    • Protons and neutrons are in the center of the atom, making up the nucleus.
    • Electrons surround the nucleus.
    • Protons have a positive charge.
    • Electrons have a negative charge.
    • The charge on the proton and electron are exactly the same magnitude but opposite.
    • Neutrons have no charge.
    • Since opposite charges attract, protons and electrons attract each other
    • The attractions we see (like trashbags sticking to walls) are due to these sub-atomic interactions (a transfer of electrons)...whoah!
    ***************************

    Fri 2/21

    * J#106

    * Meet the Elements Song

     

    * Instrodiction to Bestie [your periodic table]
    - How to use bestie...
    tilt your head
    - Color in Bestie...answers availble at ptable.com
    -Finish coloring bestie at home. NO PRINTOUTS WILL BE ALLOWED ON TESTS; only the bestie that I handed you and you colored.

    dont print this

    * Answer Journal Q...p+ are the atomic number. e- are the atomic number. n0 are the difference between the rounded off atomic mass (the "Mass Number") minus the atomic number.  e.g. Lithium is atom #3 with a mass of 6.9... 7-3 = 4 n0

     [More videos explaining the periodic table far below...]

     *****************Free for the price of admission***********

    Pitch Drop Test...The longst continous scientific experiment in history.  This apparant solid (pitch, like the stuff we make roads out of) flows like a liquid.

     

    I mispoke earlier today, claiming glass flowed like a liquid...

     

    For those who thought that pic of a hydrogen atom looked like a black hole... That's not a black hole. This is a black hole...

     

     

     

    * Mendeleev is a science boss...This has the story of when he predicted the existence of Gallium before it was discovered.

     And everyone's favorite...

     

    Comments (-1)
  • Agenda Week 26 2/11-14

    Posted by Hans Ludwig on 2/11/2020 3:00:00 PM

    Tues 2/11

    * J#99

    * Test makeups

    * Sub Report :-)

    * New Seats

    * Ch 3 Reading + WKST [finish as homework]

    [Note that I have posted Chapter 3, availible for download, above.  If you cannot print or download it, tell me; I am hapy to make you a copy]

     *****************

    Wed 2/12

    * J#100

    * Test makeups?

    * Answers to yesterday's homework

    * What is Density? [LAB]
    • Density is a characteristic property of a substance.  No other substance has that density
    • The density of a substance is the relationship between the mass of the substance and how much space it takes up (volume).
    • The mass of atoms, their size, and how they are arranged determine the density of a substance.
    • Density equals the mass of the substance divided by its volume; D = m/v.
    • Objects with the same volume but different mass must have different densities

    ******************

     Thurs 2/13

    * J#101

    * What about the density of weird shaped things?

    * Finding Volume: The Water Displacement Method LAB [HWK: answer Q 6-8]
    • A submerged object displaces a volume of liquid equal to the volume of the object.
    • One milliliter (1 mL) of water has a volume of 1 cubic centimeter (1cm3).
    • Different atoms have different sizes and masses.
    • Atoms on the periodic table are arranged in order according to the number of protons in the nucleus.
    • Even though an atom may be smaller than another atom, it might have more mass.
    • The mass of atoms, their size, and how they are arranged determine the density of a substance.
    • Density equals the mass of the object divided by its volume; D = m/v.
    • Objects with the same mass but different volume have different densities.

    When measuring volume of liquids in a graduated cylinder, we must read from the bottom of the meniscus...except for mercury...which is read from the top...unlike the picture.
    Read from the bottom of the meniscus

     ****************

    Fri 2/14

    * J#102

    * Finish discussion on Displacement LAB
    - Chlorine is 35x more massive than hydrogen.  When you replace some of the hydrogens in polyethelyne, the mass of each molecule increases much more than the increase of distance between the particles.
    - The massive, small atoms in brass (copper & zinc) are very close.  The proximity of the atoms allows for more atoms in a given space than other materials in the lab.
    - The relativly smaller size of sulfur atoms allows there to be more sulfur atoms in a given space than calcium atoms.  THe result of more atoms in a given space is the mass of a piece of sulfur is greater than the same size and shape piece of calcium, dispite there calcium atoms being more massive than sulfur atoms.

    * Pass back tests 

    * Density ppt (see embedded below)

    ********Free for the price of admission*************

     

     

    Somebody got me talking about laminar flow...

     

     

     

     

     

     

    'cause somtimes you jus' need to bob your head...

     

    Comments (-1)
  • Agenda Week 25 2/3-7

    Posted by Hans Ludwig on 2/3/2020 3:00:00 PM

    Mon 2/3

    * J#94

    * Changes of State - Freezing [Lab]
    • Freezing is the process that causes a substance to change from a liquid to a solid.
    • Freezing occurs when the molecules of a liquid slow down enough that their attractions cause them to arrange themselves into fixed positions as a solid.
    • Water (H2O) is a rare exception; when it cools, it's molecules arrange themselves into a array (pattern) larger than their volume in a liquid state.
    • Deposition is when vapor (a gas) goes straight to solid, skipping the liquid state entirely.  Examples are frost and snow

    * [continue] Solid Liquid Gas Transitions Model - include "freezing" and "deposition" on your chart, in your journal.

     The hexagonal, arrangment of frozen water molecules.  Notice they take up slightly more space, frozen than liquid. Water is one of the only substances which does this.

     Liquid water molecules are arranged randlomly and closer than the same molecules when frozen.

     **************************

    Tues 2/4

    * J#95

    * Complete Solid Liquid Gas Transitions Model
    The answers

    * Changing State - Melting [LAB]
    • Melting is a process that causes a substance to change from a solid to a liquid.
    • Melting occurs when the molecules of a solid speed up enough that the motion overcomes the attractions so that the molecules can move past each other as a liquid.
    • Sublimation is when a solid goes straight to gas (vapor), skipping the liquid state entirely.  Examples are dry ice sublimating into carbon dioxide.

    Chapter 2 test on Friday 2/07

     *********************

    Wed 2/05

    * J#96

    * Solid Liquid Gas Transitions ppt

    * Practice Modeling Solid Liquid Gas Transitions
    -> Partner check

    * Ch 2 Study Guide

    ********************

    Thurs 2/6

    * J#97

    * Work with partners to finish Study Guide

    * Answers to study guide (see link above)

    * Kahoot (or read chapter 2...see link above)

    *********************

    Fri 2/7

    * J#98

    * Ch 2 Test

     

    ***************Free for the price of admission********************

    This infrared view of the disk, or plane, of our Milky Way galaxy is assembled from more than 2 million snapshots taken over the past 10 years by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

     

     

    Comments (-1)
  • Agenda Week 24 1/27-31

    Posted by Hans Ludwig on 1/27/2020 3:00:00 PM

    Mon 1/27

    * J#89

    * Heat, Temperature, and Conduction [LAB]
    Conduction - The transfer of thermal energy when faster-moving particles (hotter things) contact slower-moving particles (colder things) and transfer energy to them.   Slower-moving molecules speed up and the faster-moving molecules slow down.
    Temperature - The measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles of a substance.
    Heat -  A transfer of energy from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower temperature.
    - Thermal Energy always moves from hot to cold
    - Conduction of thermal energy happens through contact

    • Adding energy (heating) atoms and molecules increases their motion, resulting in an increase in temperature.
    • Removing energy (cooling) atoms and molecules decreases their motion, resulting in a decrease in temperature.
    • Energy can be added or removed from a substance through a process called conduction.
    • In conduction, faster-moving molecules contact slower-moving molecules and transfer energy to them.
    • During conduction the slower-moving molecules speed up and the faster-moving molecules slow down.
    • Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules of a substance.
    • Heat is the transfer of energy from a substance at a higher temperature to a substance at a lower temperature.
    • Some materials are better conductors of heat than others.

    blue cold sdfg dfhg

    Temp is a measure of the average kinetic motion of the particles in a substance.  While there are multiple colors in each picture, the average colors of the pics are blue, red, and purple (respectively); just like in an object, there are particles of various temperatures (kinetic energy levels) bouncing into eachother, transferring energy, and the average temperature is cold, hot, and medium (respectivley).

    *********************

    Tues 1/28

    * J#90

    * Finish "Heat, Temperature, and Conduction [LAB]"

    * Phet: Energy forms and Changes in Thermal Energy [link avalible on Clever or embeded below]

     *********

    Wed 1/29

    * J#91

    * Changes of State—Evaporation [Lab Due tomorrow...and I mean it!)
    • Condensation is the process in which molecules of a gas slow down, come together, and form a liquid.
    • When gas molecules transfer their energy to something cooler, they slow down and their attractions cause them to bond to become a liquid.
    • Making water vapor colder increases the rate of condensation.
    • Increasing the concentration of water vapor in the air increases the rate of condensation.

    *****************

    Thurs 1/30

    * J#92

    * Turn in Evapration LAB (Ch 2 Lesson 2)

    * Condensation LAB (part 1)
    • Condensation is the process in which molecules of a gas slow down, come together, and form a liquid.
    • When gas molecules transfer their energy to something cooler, they slow down and their attractions cause them to bond to become a liquid.
    • Making water vapor colder increases the rate of condensation.
    • Increasing the concentration of water vapor in the air increases the rate of condensation.

    *******************

    Fri 1/31

    * J#93

    * Condensation Lab (Part 2)

    * Start Solid Liquid Gas transitions Model - Glue into journal.  Model particles in solid, liquid, gas, and their attractions, motion, and distance. include the transitions, evaporation & condensation AND come up with an example for each.

     

     

     

     

     

     

    ******************Free for the price of admission*****************

    To show the difference between heat (the transfer of thermal energy) and temperature, consider the following exmples...
    - A good conductor of heat at a low temperature - a flagpole at -20ºC.  Don't lick it. It will freeze the water in your tongue before your body can send more thermal energy to your tongue to thaw it.
    - A poor conductor of heat at a high termperature - space shuttle tile.  Designed to insulate the shuttle upon reentry, the tiles get sreamingly hot, yet do notconduct the heat to things that tourgh them.  See the video below...

     

     

     

     

     

    Comments (-1)
  • Agenda Week 23 1/21-24/20

    Posted by Hans Ludwig on 1/21/2020 3:00:00 PM

    Tues 1/21

    * J#85

    * Ch 1 Reading [our textbook. See the prermalink above]

    * A' to Study Guide for Thursday's Chapter 1 Test

    ********************

    Wed 1/22

    * J#86

    * Finish A's to Study Guide

    * They Might Be Giants - "Solid Liquid Gas" SONG

    * Kahoot review for tomorrow's test

    (* Bill Nye on atoms?)

    *******************************

    Thurs 1/23

    * J#86

    * Ch 1 Test

    ******************************

    Fri 1/23

    * J#88

    * New Seats

    * Finish Nye on Atoms (Or Julius Sumner Miller on Heat Conduction)

     

    Comments (-1)
  • Agenda Week 22 1/13-17/20

    Posted by Hans Ludwig on 1/13/2020 3:00:00 PM

    Mon 1/13/19

    * J#80

    * Week 21 Quizzy-Poo (on Google Classroom)

    * Practice Modeling Particles in a Liquid (due @end of period)
    - Arrangment: is a proxy for position.  You models should show the particles 
    - Attraction: is a proxy for distance/proximity.  Particles in a liquid are close to each other.  The particles in a hot liquid are slightly farther apart than those of a cold liquid.
    - Motion: is a proxy for speed.  We indicate motion with curved lines (one line for slow motion. Three for fast motion)

     Particles of a Liquid at Various Temperatures

    Coming up...
    - Test on Chapter 1 on Wed 1/23

    ***********************

    Tues 1/14/20

    * J #81

    * Pass Back yesterday's Models - In general, EVERYBODY needs to make the particles of a liquid closer together.  Also, not every particle requires motion lines.

    * Identifying Structures ppt game.

    * Structure of Matter ppt & Reading

    [HWK: complete last page of the Reading]

    ************

    Wed1/15

    * J#81

    * Answers to HWK

    * Moving Molecules in a Solid - 
    - In a solid, the atoms are very attracted to one another. The atoms vibrate but stay in fixed positions because of their strong attractions for one another.
    - Heating a solid increases the motion of the atoms.
    - An increase in the motion of the atoms competes with the attraction between atoms and causes them to move a little farther apart.
    - Cooling a solid decreases the motion of the atoms.
    - A decrease in the motion of the atoms allows the attractions between atoms to bring them a little close together.
    - An decrease in the motion of the atoms competes less with the attraction between atoms and causes them to move a little closer together.

    * Ans Journal Q

    Heated molecules in a solid are slightly farther apart, increasing the size of the object

     **************

    Thrus 1/16

    * J#83

    * Air, It's really There! [LAB]
    - In a gas, the molecules have very weak attractions for one another. Molecules are able to move freely past each other with little interaction between them.
    - The molecules of a gas are much more spread out and move independently compared to the molecules of liquids and solids.
    - Whether a substance is a solid, liquid, or gas at a certain temperature depends on the balance between the motion of the atoms or molecules at that temperature and how strong their attractions are for one another.
    - Heating a gas increases the speed of its molecules.
    - Cooling a gas decreases the speed of its molecules.

    Particles of Solid Liquid & Gas

    Here is a comparison of the particles in solids, liquids, and gases.  Note the arrangments, attractions (distance), and motions.  (Error Note: The Solid should have only one motion line, not two or three)

    We have comcluded all the lessons for Chapter 1.  Read the chapter yourself; it's only 5 pages (with pictures).  The test is next week.

    [Just for fun, check out the video below on the physics of weightloss.  Hint: you breath your fat away]

    ******************

    Fri 1/17

    * J#84

    * Quizzy poo for Week 22

    * Study guide for Thursday's Test (1/23) [yes it has been postponed]

    Nota bene: if you are in period 1, fear not; I will not count the quizzy poo you took.  We might take a better formatted version on Monday.]

    ***********Free for the price of admission**************

     

    And while I'm talking about carbon dioxide, trees are amazing!... Where do trees get their matter?

    Don't do this inl my class....

     

     

     

     

    Comments (-1)